Established in 1787, the Łyczakowski Cemetery is the main cemetery for the city of Lviv, Ukraine. The cemetery is officially designated as a museum, specifically the "State History and Culture Museum-Preserve - Lychakiv Cemetery" and burial vault. The cemetery spans an area of 42 hectares.
The museum contains sculptures and architectural buildings by the most well-known artists and sculptors: Hartman Witwer, the Schimser brothers, Paul Eutelle, G.Perrie, Yu. Markovskyy, I.Levynskyy, H.Kuznevych, S. Lytvynenko. Ye. Dzyndra and others.
Such prominent figures of the Ukrainian culture as Markiyan Shashkevych, Volodymyr Barvinskyy, Ivan Franko, Solomiya Krushelnytska, Ivan Krypyakevych, Stanislav Lyudkevych, Volodymyr Ivasyuk, Anatoliy Kos-Anatolskyy, Ihor Bilozir, and others found their eternal rest place among the ancient trees and greenery.
The cemetery has been the main necropolis of the Lviv's intelligentsia, middle and upper classes. Initially the cemetery was located on several hills in the borough of Lychakiv, following the imperial Austro-Hungarian edict ordering that all cemeteries be moved outside of the city limits. The original project was prepared by Karol Bauer, the head of the Lviv University botanical garden.
In mid-1850s the cemetery was expanded significantly into a network of alleys and round-abouts. It then became the main cemetery, and soon most other cemeteries were closed. The two largest that remained were the Yanivskiy Cemetery (Polish: cmentarz Janowski), with many working class graves and the adjacent New Jewish Cemetery. Lychakivskiy Cemetery was used by all Christian sects in the city: in addition to Roman Catholics, it also included Eastern Rite Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox.
Restorations and tidying out of the prominent culture and science figures' burial monuments are constantly conducted at the territory of the museum. The area is trimmed to the European standards. Since 1991 the museum has been supervised by the Museum Academic Council and since 2001 the Scientific Department has been operating here.
It is also the burial place of Edmund Pike Graves (March 13, 1891 – November 22, 1919), American aviator, Royal Flying Corps and Polish Air Force officer, the latter as a member of the Polish 7th Air Escadrille "Kościuszko Squadron", who served as an instructor and a fighter pilot during World War I and the Polish-Soviet War.
The funeral of Lieutenant Edmund Graves was held on November 24, 1919, and given high honors by the Polish government. The procession was attended by thousands of people, included military attachés form the French Military Mission to Poland. He is buried in Lwów in the Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów (a part of Lyczakowski Cemetery), he was posthumously awarded the Cross of Valour.
It has a number of unique and distinct areas and features:
Ukrainian National Army Memorial
The Ukrainian National Army Memorial is devoted to the Ukrainian National Army soldiers buried in the cemetery, including soldiers of the SS Division "Galicia". It was established due to the efforts of Ukrainian ational-patriotic organizations and the Ukrainian emigrant veterans' movement.
Field of Mars
On the north side of the Cemetery is situated Field of Mars, a war memorial built in 1974. This war memorial contains the graves of 3,800 Soviet soldiers who died in the battles against the Nazi occupiers during the Great Patriotic War and against units of Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) (acting up to the mid-1950s).
Lviv Defenders' Cemetery
The Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów (Cemetery of Eaglets, Polish: Cmentarz Orląt Lwowskich) is a memorial and a burial place for the Poles and their allies who died in Lviv during the hostilities of the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918−1919) and Polish-Soviet War (1919−1921).
1863 January rebels' hill
In the back part of the cemetery on a separate field indicated original steel crosses. Buried here are members Polish January Uprising of 1863, of which a member of the Polish Central National Committee Bronisław Szwarce, the famous zoologist Benedykt Dybowski, cornet Vitebsk land, resting under the central monument rebels Shimon Vizunas Shidlovsky and others.
- Wikimedia Commons (over 200 entries)
- Lviv Tourist Information